LIST OF BRYOLOGICAL WORD ROOTS AND MEANINGS

Compiled by Janice Glime


a:  not, without; ex. abiotic, achlorophyllous
ab:  off, from, away; ex. abaxial, abomasum
abdom:  abdomen
abort:  born prematurely
abscis:  cut off; ex. abscission
ac:  to, toward
Acaulon:  without a stem
acet:  vinegar; ex. Rumex acetosella
acetabul:  vinegar cup
aci:  point, barb
acicul:  small needle
aciculare:  needle-like
acous:  hear, heard
acro:  tip; ex. acrocarpous, acropetal
actino:  ray, beam; ex. actinostele, actinomorphic
acu:  needle
acumin:  point, pointed; ex. acuminate
acuminatum:  having a sharp, elongate point
acut:  sharp; ex. acutifolia
ad:  to, toward; ex. adaxial, adhesion; adrenal
adelph:  brother; ex. Philadelphia (city of brotherly love), Rhytidiadelphus
adianthoides:  like the fern Adiantum
aduncus:  bent like a hook
aequa:  equal; ex. Pteridium aquilinum
aer:  air; aerobic
aer:  air; ex. aerobic
aeruginosum:  full of copper, rusty
aestival:  summer
affine:  adjacent, neighboring
affinis:  adjacent, neighboring
ag:  to, toward
agr:  field
al:  wing; alar cell
alb:  white; ex. albino, alba, Leucobryum album
albidum:  white
aleur:  flour, meal; ex. aleurone
alg:  seaweed; ex. algae
algovicum:  from Alg„u in Bavaria
allelo:  one another; ex. allele, allelopathy
allo:  different
alp:  mountain; ex. alpine, Polytrichastrum alpinum
alpicola:  high mountain, subalpine
alpinus:  alpine
alter:  other
alti:  tall, high
ambi:  around, surrounding
ambiguus:  doubtful
Amblyodon:  blunt-toothed
amblyphyllum:  blunt-leafed
Amblystegium:  blunt roof
ambul:  walk
americanum:  of America
amoeb:  change; ex. Amoeba, amoeboid
amph:  around, on both sides, double; ex. amphibian, Amphidium
Amphidium:  like an urn (originally Amphoridium)
ampullaceum:  flask-like
amyl:  starch; ex. amylose
an:  not, without; ex. anaerobic, anemia, anisogamous
ana:  up, throughout; ex. anaphase, anabiotic
andr:  man; ex. androecium, Aulacomnium androgynum
androgynum:  male-female
aneu:  without; ex. Aneura
ang:  vessel, box, case; ex. gametangium, synangium, sporangium
angustatus:  narrow
annotina:  a year old
annul:  ring; ex. annulus
annulatum:  having an annulus (ring around mouth of capsule)
Anodon:  without tooth
anomala:  deviating, irregular
Anomodon:  irregular teeth
anthrop:  human; ex. anthropogenic
anti:  against; ex. antipodal, antigen (antibody generator), antibody,
antiherbivory
antipyretica:  against fire; used to insulate chimneys
anu:  ring, aperture; ex. anus
aphrodit:  goddess of love; ex. hermaphrodite, aphrodisiac
aphylla:  without leaves
apiculatus:  having a short point
apo:  from, off, away; ex. apoplastic, apophysis
apocarpa:  without fruit (???)
aqua:  water; ex. aqueous humor; aquatic
arch:  first, beginning; ex. archegonium
argenteum:  silvery-white
arthr:  joint; Arthropoda; Arthrophyta
asprella:  slightly rough
Astomum:  without a mouth
astro:  star; astronaut
atri:  vestibule; ex. atrium
Atrichum:  without hairs (on calyptra)
attenuatus:  narrowing to the apex; attenuate
audi:  hear
Aulacomnium:  furrowed Mnium
aur:  ear; ex. auricle
aurantiacum:  gold-orange
auto:  self; ex. autotrophic
axilla:  armpit; ex. axillary
baso:  base; ex. basophil
bene:  well
bi:  two; ex. sodium bicarbonate, biennial, bisect, biflagellate
bienn:  every two years; ex. biennial
bili:  bile, anger; ex.
bio:  life; ex. biology, biosphere
blast:  bud, sprout; ex. blastula
bol:  clod, lump; ex. bolus
botan:  pasture, grass, fodder; ex. botany
botr:  bunch of grapes; ex. Muscari botryoides
brachi:  arm; ex. brachiopod
brachy:  short; ex. Brachythecium
brachydictyus:  short net
brachyptera:  short-winged
brachypus:  short
Brachythecium:  short theca or capsule
brev:  short; ex. brevicaulis
brevipes:  short
brevirostre:  short-beaked
bronch:  windpipe
bryo:  moss
Bryoerythrophyllum:  red-leafed moss
bryoides:  like Bryum
Bryoxyphium:  sword moss
Bryum:  moss
bulbifera:  having bulbous gemmae
caec:  blind
caespiticium:  small tufted
cala:  insert; ex. intercalary meristem
calcarea:  of alkaline or calcareous habitats
calci:  lime
calypt:  cover
calyptr:  veil; ex. calyptra
cambi:  exchange; ex. cambium
campestre:  of the field
campylopoda:  bent stalk
canescens:  becoming white or gray
capill:  hair; ex. capillary, Bryum capillare
capillaceum:  thin hair
capillare:  hairlike
capillifolius:  hairlike leaves
capit:  head; ex. capitulum
caps:  box, chest; ex. capsid
capsul:  little box; ex. capsule
carb:  coal; ex. Carboniferous, carboxypeptidase, carboxylase
card:  heart; ex. cardiac
carin:  keel; ex. carinal canal
carn:  flesh; ex. carnivore, carnivorous
carp:  fruit; ex. carpogonium, carposporophyte, carpel, Sphaerocarpus
cat:  down
caten:  chain
caud:  tail
caul:  stem; ex. cauline, Cypripedium acaule
cavifolium:  having leaves that are very concave
celest:  heavenly
celo:  hollow
cen:  common
ceno:  evacuate
cent:  100
centr:  center; ex. centriole, centromere, central canal
cephal:  head
cera:  horn; ex. Ceratodon
Ceratodon:  horn tooth
cereb:  brain; ex. cerebellum, cerebrum
cernu:  nodding; ex. Trillium cernuum
cervi:  neck
cerviculata:  pertaining to neck
chaet:  bristle; ex. chaeta, Coleochaete
chel:  claw; ex. chelation
chemo:  chemistry; ex. chemotropism, chemotaxis
chias:  diagonally arranged; ex. chiasma
chlor:  green; ex. chlorophyll, chloroplast, chloronema, chlorophyllous
chori:  membrane
choroid:  like a membrane; ex. choroid of eye
chrom:  color; ex. chromosome, chromatid, hematochrome
chrysophyllum:  having golden leaves
cide:  kill; ex. herbicide, pesticide, insecticide
cili:  small hair; ex. cilia
ciliata:  having small hairs
cinclidioides:  like Cinclidium
cine:  movement
circ:  ring; ex. circulatory, circinate
circum:  around
Cirriphyllum:  having curled leaves
clad:  branch; ex. Cladonia, Haplocladium
cladorrhizans:  stem "roots" referring to rhizoids on stem
clar:  clear
clav:  club; ex. Lycopodium clavatum
cleis:  closed; ex. cleistogamous
cloac:  sewer; ex.  cloaca
co:  together; ex. cohesion, coevolution
coagul:  drive together; ex. coagulate
coarct:  pressed together; ex. coarctata
coarctata:  pressed together
cocc:  berry
coec:  blind
coel:  hollow
cohaerens:  sticking together
cole:  sheath; ex. Coleoptera, Coleochaete
colic:  affecting the bowels
coll:  glue; ex. collenchyma
collat:  brought together
colo:  colon
column:  pillar; ex. columnar
colus:  inhabiting; ex. saxicolous, terricolous
com:  with
commis:  united
commune:  common
commutatum:  changing direction
comos:  with long hair; ex. comose
compacta:  compact
con:  with, together; conduction, convection, conceptacle
confervoides:  like an aquatic plant
coni:  cone; ex. conifer
contortum:  contorted
contra:  against, opposite; ex. contractile vacuole
controversa:  turned in opposite directions
convoluta:  coiled
copul:  link, bond; ex. copulate
cordifolium:  heart-shaped leaf base
coroll:  little crown, wreath; ex. corolla
coron:  crown; ex. corona, coronate
corp:  body
corpusc:  little body; ex. corpuscles
cort:  bark; ex. cortex, corticolous
cosm:  world, universe; ex. microcosm
cost:  rib; ex. costa
cotyl:  cup, socket, cavity; ex. cotyledon
counter:  opposite; ex. counter current exchange
cracy:  rule
crani:  skull; ex. cranium, Dicranum
crass:  thick; ex. Crassulaceae (Crassulacean acid metabolism)
crassinervium:  thick-nerved (referring to costa)
Cratoneuron:  nerve (costa) shaped like a bowl
crispula:  curled
crispum:  curled
cristatus:  crested
cruda:  bloody, raw, or unripe
cryo:  cold, frost; ex. cryoprotectants, cryogenics, cryostat
cryophilum:  loving cold
cryph:  hidden
crypt:  hidden, concealed; ex. cryptobiosis, cryptogams
cune:  wedge; ex. cuneate
cupr:  copper
curt:  short; ex. Brachythecium curtum
curtum:  shortened
curvifolium:  curved leaf
cuspidata:  terminating in a point (leaf)
cut:  skin; ex. cuticle
cyath:  cup; ex. cyathium
cycl:  circle; ex. life cycle
cylind:  roll, cylinder
cylindricus:  cylindrical (referring to capsule)
cyst:  bladder, bag; ex. encyst, cystocarp
cyt:  cell; ex. erythrocyte, phagocyte, cytoplasm, cytology
dactyl:  finger, toe; ex. pterodactyl, Dactylis
dalecarlica:  from Swedish province of Dalarna
de:  from, down, out; denature
dealbatus:  whitened
debil:  disabled, weak
deca:  10; ex. decapod
decid:  falling off; ex. deciduous
decipiens:  deceiving
dehisc:  split; ex. dehiscence
delicatulum:  delicate
deliquesc:  liquefy
demissum:  cast down
dendr:  tree; ex. dendrology, dendrites, dendrogram, ex. Climacium
dendroides
dendroides:  tree-like
dens:  tooth, thick
densum:  thick
dent:  tooth; ex. dentate, Pogonatum dentatum
dentatum:  having teeth (on leaves)
denticulatum:  having small teeth
deplanatum:  flattened (leaves or plant)
derm:  skin; ex. endodermis, epidermis
detrit:  wear off; ex. detritus
dext: right-hand side
di:  separate, two; ex. disaccharide, diarch, dioecious, Dicranum
dialy:  separate; ex. dialysis
diastol:  standing apart; ex. diastolic pressure
dich:  two, in two; ex. dichotomous
Dichodontium:  2 teeth
dicr:  forked
dicran:  two-headed; ex Dicranum
Dicranella:  little Dicranum
Dicranum:  two heads
Didymodon:  twin teeth
digastrum:  two stomachs, (referring to pouches on each side of costa at
leaf base in Brachythecium digastrum)
digest:  dissolved, digest; ex. digestion
digit:  finger, toe; ex. Digitalis
dilat:  expanded; ex. dilation
dimorphum:  two forms (usually referring to leaves)
dino:  whirling; ex. dinoflagellates
Diphyscium:  two bladders (spore sac is separated from capsule wall,
making 2 bladders)
dipl:  two, double; ex. diploid
dis:  separate, double; ex. dissect
disc:  round plate; ex. Ptychodiscus
dist:  stand apart, distant; ex. distal convoluted tubule
disticha:  in two rows
distichaceum:  in two rows
Distichium:  in two rows
Ditrichum:  2 hairs
diurn:  daily, in daytime; ex. diurnal
dom:  house; ex. domestic
dorm:  sleep; ex. dormant, dormancy
dors:  back; ex. dorsal, dorsiventral
drepan:  sickle, Drepanocladus
Drepanocladus:  sickle stem
droser:  dew; ex. Drosera
Dryptodon:  divided teeth (peristome)
duc:  lead; ex. conduction
duo:  two, double; ex. duodenum
dyn:  power
dys:  bad; ex. dystrophic
e:  out, without, from; ex. egestion, ecostate, emarginate
ecdys:  slipping out, escape; ex. ecdysterone
ech:  reverberation of sound; ex. echolocation
echin:  sea urchin; ex. Echinodermata
ecious:  house; ex. monoecious
eco:  house; ex. ecology
ecto:  outer; ex. ectotherm
ectomy:  to cut out; tonsillectomy
edaph:  soil; ex. edaphic
efferen:  flowing away; efferent arteriole
effluen:  flowing away
ego:  self
ejacul:  throw out; ex. ejaculation
elater:  driver; ex. elater
elatum:  bring out; winged
elegans:  elegant
ell:  small; ex. organelle
elongata:  elongate
embol:  inserted, wedge; ex. embolism
embryo:  embryo; ex. Embryophyta
emet:  vomit
emia:  blood; ex. anemia
en:  in, into; ex. encyst
Encalypta:  covered with a veil
end:  within, inner; ex. endodermis, endotherm, endocarp, endosperm
enem:  send in; ex. enema
enter:  intestine, gut; ex. enteric
Entodon:  tooth within
entom:  insect; ex. entomology
Entosthodon:  teeth within (peristome inserted well inside capsule)
eo:  early; ex. eosinophil (early damage loving)
ephemer:  for a day; ex. Ephemeroptera (live one day as adults),
ephemeral, Ephemerum
Ephemerum:  short-lived
ephippi:  saddle; ex. ephippia (saddle-shaped cover of Daphnia eggs)
epi:  upon, over; ex. epiphyte, epidermis, epicotyl, epigynous
epidemi:  among people; ex. epidemic
equi:  equal, horse; ex. Equisetum, Equisetophyta
ericoides:  like the heath Erica
erythr:  red; ex. erythrocyte, Bryoerythrophyllum
eu:  good, well; ex. eutrophic, eubacteria, Eurhynchium
Eucladium:  true stem
Eurhynchium:  good beak
eury:  broad, wide; ex. euryhaline
evolut:  unrolling
ex:  out, from; ex. exfoliate, exarch, excurrent
exannulatus:  lacking annulus (ring around capsule mouth)
excret:  separate, throw out; ex. excretion
exiguus:  scanty, small
exilis:  exiled
exo:  out, outside; ex. exopolysaccharide, exobiology, exoskeleton,
exocarp
extern:  outside, outer; ex. external
extra:  outside, more, external; ex. extrahydrolytic enzyme
exuv:  that which is taken off; ex. exuvia (shed shell of insect)
falcatum:  sickle shaped
falcifolium:  falcate leaf; sickle-shaped leaf
fallax:  deceptive
fasci:  bunch, bundle; ex. fascicle
fasciculare:  in fascicles or bunches (like pine needles)
fec:  dregs; ex. feces, fecal
fecund:  fruitful
fem:  thigh
fenestr:  window
ferr:  iron
fertile:  fruitful (referring to capsules)
fibr:  fiber; ex. fibrin, fibrinogen, fiber
fibul:  clasp, buckle; ex. fibula
fil:  thread; ex. filament
fili:  fern; ex. Filicopsida
filicinum:  fernlike
filiformis:  thread form
fimbri:  fringe; ex. fimbriate
fimbriatum:  fimbriate or appearing tattered; fringed
fiss:  split; ex. Fissidens
Fissidens:  split teeth (in capsule)
flaccidum:  flaccid, flabby
flagell:  whip; ex. flagellum, Dicranum flagellare
flagellare:  threadlike
flav:  yellow; ex. flavonoid
flavicans:  yellow
flexicaule:  bent or flexible stem
flexuosa:  bent or flexible
flor:  flower; ex. flora
floresc:  blooming; ex. inflorescence
fluitans:  of the water, flowing
fluvi:  river; ex. Hygroamblystegium fluviatile
fluviatile:  of the river
foli:  leaf; ex. foliage, foliose
foliosum:  leafy
fontanus:  of the fountain, brooks; ex. Fontinalis
fract:  break, broken; ex. fracture
frag:  break; ex. fragment, Saxifragaceae
fragilifolium:  easily broken leaves
fragilis:  easily broken (referring to leaves)
frict:  rub; ex. friction
frons:  leaf; ex. Fissidens grandifrons, frond
fruct:  fruit; ex. fructose (sugar found in fruits)
fuc:  seaweed; ex. Fucus, fucoxanthin
fulvum:  reddish-yellow, tawny
furc:  fork; ex. bifurcate
fuscescens:  dusky brown
fuscum:  brown
gaea:  earth; ex. Epigaea
gala:  milk; ex. Polygala
gam:  marriage; ex. karyogamy, plasmogamy
gamet:  wife or husband; ex. gametangium, gamete
gangli:  knot on string; ex. ganglion
gast:  stomach; ex. gastric, gastrin
gemm:  bud; ex. gemma
gen:  produce; ex. fibrinogen, pyrogen, antigen
gener:  produce; ex. generation, generative cell
genesis:  origin, birth; ex. sporogenesis, gametogenesis
geniculata:  bent, referring to seta
geo:  earth; ex. geology
gest:  carried; ex. egestion, gestation
giga:  very large; Gigaspermum
giganteum:  very large
glab:  smooth; ex. glabrous
glaucescens:  whitened
glaucum:  white
glob:  ball, glove; ex. hemoglobin
glom:  ball, ball of yarn; ex. glomerulus
glott:  tongue
gluc:  sweet; ex. glucose
glut:  swallow
glyc:  sweet; ex. glycogen, glycolysis
gon:  seed, offspring; ex. gonad, oogonium, archegonium
gracil:  slender
gracilescens:  slender
gram:  grass; ex. graminoid
grand:  large; ex. Fissidens grandifrons, Trillium grandiflorum
grandifrons:  large leafed; ex. Fissidens grandifrons
grav:  heavy; ex. gravitropism
gurg:  whirlpool, engulf; ex. regurgitate
gutt:  drop; ex. guttation
gymn:  naked, bare; ex. gymnosperm, Gymnostomum
Gymnostomum:  naked mouth (of capsule)
gyn:  female; ex. gynecology, gynoecium
Gyroweisia:  twisted weisia
habit:  live, dwell; ex. habitat
haem:  blood; ex. hemoglobin, hematochrome
hapl:  simple, single; ex. haploid, Haplomitrium
Haplocladium:  one stem
Haplohymenium:  single membrane
hasta:  spear, spear-shaped; ex. hastate
helic:  coil; ex. helicoid
helio:  sun; ex. heliophyte (sun plant), Helianthus
helmin:  worm; ex. Helminthes
helodioides:  like Helodium
hem:  blood; ex. hemoglobin, hemophilia, hematochrome
hemi:  half; ex. Hemiptera
hepa:  liver; ex. hepatic, Hepaticae, Hepatica
herb:  grass; ex. herbivore, herbaceous
hered:  heir, inherit; ex. heredity
herm:  male; ex. hermaphrodite
hermaphrodit:  with both male & female organs
herni:  rupture; ex. hernia
herpet:  reptile, Herpetoneuron
heter:  other, different; ex. heterocyst, heterogamy, heteromorphic,
heterosporous
Heterocladium:  different stems
heteromalla:  different wool (???)
heterophyllium:  different leaves
heterostichum:  different row or line
hians:  opening, gaping
hiat:  opening, gap; ex. hiatal hernia
hibern:  winter; ex. hibernate
hirsut:  hairy; ex. hirsute, hirsuta
hirtella:  small hairy; rough
hirud:  leech; ex. Hirudinea
hispid:  hairy
hispidulum:  small hairs; bristly
histo:  tissue; ex. histology, histamine
homeo:  like, resembling; ex. homeothermic, homeostasis
homo:  like, same; ex. homologous, homothallic, homology, homosporous
homo:  man; ex. Homo sapiens
Homomallium:  1 direction, as leaves all turned one way
hormo:  chain; ex. hormogonia
hort:  garden; ex. horticulture
humilis:  low
hyal:  glass, transparent; ex. hyaline
hydat:  water; hydathode
hydr:  water; ex. hydrate, hydrolysis, hydroid, hydrome
hyg:  health; ex. hygiene
hygr:  moist, wet; ex hygroscopic
Hygroamblystegium:  water Amblystegium
Hygrohypnum:  water Hypnum
hygrometrica:  water measuring
hyper:  over, above, excessive; ex. hypertonic, hyperosmotic
hypn:  sleep; ex. hypnosis, hypnozygote, Hypnum
hypnoides:  like Hypnum
hypo:  under, beneath; ex. hypotonic, hypoosmotic, hypothalamus,
hypocotyl, hypodermis, hypogynous
hyster:  lower, uterus, womb; ex. hysterectomy
hystrix:  porcupine; ex. Hystrix
ichthy:  fish; ex. ichthyology
icle:  little; ex. ventricle
icul:  small; ex. animalcule
ilio:  intestine
illecebra:  attractive
im:  not; ex. imperfect
imag:  likeness; ex. imago (shed skin of insect)
imbric:  shingle; ex. imbricated
imbricatum:  overlapping
immersum:  having a capsule that is immersed in the leaves, i.e., lacking
an elongate seta
immun:  safe; ex. immunity
imponens:  deceptive
in:  in, into, not, without; ex. incomplete (flower)
inclinata:  inclined
incrass:  thickened; ex. incrassate
indu:  clothe; ex. indusium
infer:  below; inferior ovary
infra:  below, beneath
infundibul:  funnel; ex. infundibulus
innoc:  harmless; ex. innocuous
inocul:  implant; ex. inoculate
instar:  form, likeness; ex. instar (molting stage of insect)
insul:  island; ex. insulin, insulate
integ:  whole, complete; ex. integument
inter:  between, among; interphase, interstitial, intercalary, internode
intermedia:  intermediate
intestin:  intestine
inundatum:  in & out of water
involucr:  wrapper; ex. involucre
involut:  wrapped up; ex. involute
involuta:  curled upward on edge
ir:  not, without
iri:  iris of eye
irrit:  excite; ex. irritate
iso:  equal; ex. isopod, isosceles, isogamous
isopterygium:  equal wings
ite:  stone, fossil; ex. bauxite
ithyphylla:  straight leaves
itis:  inflammation; ex. tonsillitis
ium:  small
jugo:  yoke; ex. conjugation
julaceus:  cylindrical; having leaves tight around the stem
jungermannioides:  like Jungermannia
juniperinum:  resembling a juniper
juven:  youth; ex. juvenile
juxta:  near to; ex. juxtamedullary
kary:  nucleus; ex. karyogamy, karyotype, prokaryotic, eukaryotic
kel:  claw
kera:  horn
kero:  wax
kilo:  1000; ex. kilometers
kine:  move; ex. cytokinesis
kyst:  cell
labell:  little lip; ex. labellum (insect lip, orchid lower petals)
labi:  lip; ex. labium
lac:  milk; ex. lactose, lactate
lacr:  tears; ex. lacrimal gland
lacun:  space, cavity; ex. lacunae
lacustr:  of lake; ex. lacustris
laetum:  pleasing
laeve:  smooth
laevigat:  smooth, slippery; ex. laevigatus
lamell:  small plate; ex. lamellae
lamin:  thin plate, sheet, layer; ex. Laminaria, laminarin
lano:  wool; ex. lanolin
lapponicum:  of Lapland
larvi:  larva
lat:  broad, wide; ex. lateral line, Typha latifolia, lateral wall
latebricola:  hidden dwelling
latifolium:  wide leaf
lepi:  scale; ex. Lepidodendron
lept:  fine, slender; ex. leptoid, leptome, Leptobryum
Leptobryum:  slender Bryum
Leptodictyum:  slender net
leuco:  white; ex. Leucobryum
Leucobryum:  white moss
Leucodon:  white teeth
leuko:  white; ex. leukocyte
lign:  wood; ex. lignin
ligul:  tongue-shaped, strap; ex. ligulate, ligule
ligulata:  strap-shaped
limn: lake; ex. limnology
lineare:  linear
lingu:  tongue; ex. lingulate
lingulata:  tongue-shaped (leaves)
lip:  fat; ex. lipids, lipase
lith:  stone; ex. statolith, monolith
locul:  little place, cell; ex. locule
longicollis:  having a long seta
longifolium:  long-leafed
longirostrum:  long-beaked
longiseta:  having a long seta
loreus:  thong, e.g. long branches resembling straps
lorica:  armor
lucern:  lamp
luci:  clear, shining; ex. Lycopodium lucidulum
lumbric:  earthworm; ex. Lumbricus
lunul:  crescent; ex. Lunularia
luridum:  pale, ghastly
luteum:  yellow
lux:  light
lychn:  light; ex. Lychnis
lyco: wolf; ex. Lycopodium
lycopodioides:  like the clubmosses, Lycopodium
lymph:  water; ex. lymphocyte
lys:  loose, loosening; ex. lysozyme, hydrolysis, glycolysis
macr:  large; ex. macroscopic, macrophage, macrandrous, macrohyll
macula:  spot, spotted; ex. maculosa
magn:  large; ex. magnify, Rhizomnium magnifolium
majus:  large
mal:  bad, evil, wrong; ex. malpractice
mand:  chew; ex. mandible
manubri:  handle; ex. manubrium
marginatum:  having a border
mari:  sea; ex. marine
marylandicum:  of Maryland
medi:  middle; ex. medulla oblongata, median, renal medulla
medium:  middle
mega:  large; ex. megainin, megaspore, megasporangium, megasporophyll
mei:  less; ex. meiosis, meiosporagnium, meiospore
melan:  black; ex. melanocyte
mer:  part; ex. centromere, merous, mericarp
merist:  divided; ex. meristem
meso:  middle; ex. mesophyll, mesocarp, Mesozoic
meta:  turning post; ex. metaphase, metaxylem
micr:  small; ex. microscope, microvilli, microgametophyte, microphyll,
Microphyllophyta, micropyle, microsporangium, microspore, microsporophyll
microphyllum:  small leaves
mict:  mixed; ex. apomictic (without mixing)
mid:  middle; ex. midgut
migr:  wander, migrate; ex. migration
mill:  1000; ex. millimeter (.001 meters)
mim:  imitation; ex. mimicry
minor:  small
minutulum:  very small
mirabilis:  wonderful
mito:  thread; ex. mitosis
mitr:  cap, turban; ex. Haplomitrium
mnioides:  like Mnium
Mnium:  moss
molluscum:  soft
mono:  one, single; ex. monocyte, monocular, monocot, monoecious,
monosiphonous
montanum:  of the mountains
morph:  form; ex. morphology
mot:  move, motion; ex. motile
muc:  mold, mucus; ex. mucous, mucopolysaccharide
mucronifolia:  having leaves with short point
multi:  many; ex. multinucleate, multiflagellate
muta:  change; ex. mutation
muticum:  cut off
myc:  fungus; mycorrhizal
myo:  muscle
naid:  water nymph; ex. naiad
nanno:  dwarf; ex. nannandrous
natan:  swimming; ex. Riccia natans
navig:  go by ship; ex. navigation
negr:  black; ex. Negro
neo-mexicana:  of New Mexico; ex. Fontinalis neo-mexicana
neo:  new; ex. neoplasm, neonatal, neoteny
nephr:  kidney; ex. nephron
nervosa:  having a strong costa
neur:  nerve; ex. neuron
neutr:  neither; ex. neutrophil
nigritum:  black
nitens:  shining, handsome
niv:  snow; ex. nivea, Chlamydomonas nivalis
noct:  night; ex. nocturnal
nod:  knot, swelling; ex. node, internode
norvegica:  of Norway
noterophyllum:  nerve-leaf (leaf is mostly costa)
noto:  back; ex. notochord, Notonecta (back swimmer)
novae-angliae:  of New England; ex. Fontinalis novae-angliae
novo:  new
nucell:  nut; ex. nucellus
nucle:  little nut; ex. nucleus, nucleating bacteria, nucleating proteins
nucleol:  little nucl; ex. nucleolus
nut:  nod, nodding, ex. Pohlia nutans
nutans:  nodding
o:  egg; ex. oogonium, oogamous, oopore, oospore
obscura:  obscure
obtusifolius:  blunt-tipped leaf
ocell:  little eye
ochraceum:  ochre (gold) colored; ex. Hygrohypnum ochraceum
oestr:  frenzy; ex. oestrogen
ohioense:  of Ohio; ex. Polytrichum ohioense
oid:  like; ex. android, pyrenoid, rhizoid
omas:  paunch; ex. omasum
omma:  eye; ex. ommatidia
omni:  all; ex. omnivore
onco:  swelling; ex. Oncophorus
Oncophorus:  hooked bearer
opercul:  cover, lid; ex. operculum
ophthalm:  eye; ex. ophthalmology
opsi:  sight; ex. rod opsin
opt:  eye, vision; ex. optic nerve, fiber optic
ora:  mouth; ex. oral
organ:  organ, instrument; ex. organ, organelle
orient:  east; ex. orientation, orientalis
orni:  bird; ex. ornithology
orth:  straight; ex. Orthotrichum
Orthocladon:  straight stem
orthorrhynchum:  straight-beaked
Orthotrichum:  straight hairs (on calyptra)
osis:  condition of; ex. meiosis, symbiosis
osmo:  pushing, thrusting; ex. osmosis, osmoregulation, osmolarity
osmundoides:  resembling the fern Osmunda; ex. Fissidens osmundoides
ovari:  ovary
ovul:  little egg; ex. ovule
ovum:  egg
oxy:  acid; ex. oxyprotectants
Oxycladon:  sharp stem
pach:  thick; ex. Pachyderm (elephant)
pagorum:  rock, ice, frost
pallens:  pale
pallescens:  pale
pallidum:  pale
paludosum:  of the marsh
palustre:  of the marsh; ex. Aulacomnium palustre
papill:  nipple; papilla
papillosum:  having papillae or projections
par:  equal; ex. parenchyma
para:  beside, beyond, near; ex. paramedic, paraphysis
Paraleucobryum:  "around" leucobryum, referring to its similarities
parasit:  near food; ex. parasite
parthen:  virgin, without fertilization; ex. parthenogenesis,
Parthenocissus
parv:  small; Rubus parviflorus
paten:  spreading open
patens:  open, spreading
pater:  father
patr:  father
patula:  open, spreading
pauc:  few; ex. Polygala paucifolia
ped:  foot, child; ex. Cypripedium
peduncul:  little foot; ex. peduncle
pellucida:  transparent; ex. Tetraphis pellucida
pellucidum:  transparent
pelv:  basin, pelvis; ex. renal pelvis
peni:  penis
penn:  wing, feather; ex. pennate
pennata:  feather, wing; ex. Neckera pennata
pensilvanicum:  of Pennsylvania
peps:  digest; ex. pepsin, pepsinogen
pept:  digested; peptide
per:  through, by means of; ex. permeable, peristalsis, perfoliate
perenni:  through the year; ex. perennial
peri:  around; ex. peristalsis, perimeter, pericarp, pericentral cell,
periderm, peristome
permea:  pass through; ex. semi-permeable membrane
pernic:  destructive, quick, agile
perspic:  see through, sharp-sighted
pessim:  the worst
petiol:  stalk; ex. petiole
phae:  dusky; ex. Phaeophyta
phag:  eat; ex. phagocytosis
pharm:  drug, poison; ex. pharmacy
pharyn:  throat; ex. pharynx
phase:  appearance, show; ex. metaphase
phell:  cork; ex. phelloderm, phellogen
pheno:  show, appear; ex. phenotype, phenolic
phil:  love, loving; basophil
phleb:  vein
phlegm:  inflammation, mucous
phloe:  bark of tree; ex. phloem
phor:  carry, bear; ex. chromatophore, sporangiophore, sorophore,
sporophore, archegoniophore, antheridiophore
phot:  light; ex. phototropism, photosynthesis
phthalm:  eye; ex. ophthalmology
phyc:  seaweed; ex. phycology, phycocyanin. phycoerythrin
phyll:  leaf; ex. chlorophyll, epiphyllous
phylo:  tribe; ex. phylogenetic
physi:  bladder; ex. paraphysis
physio:  nature; ex. physiology
phyt:  plant; ex. epiphyte, Chlorophyta, Bryophyta, Magnoliophyta
pil:  hair; pilose
piliferum:  felt; dense hairs
pinna:  wing, feather; ex. pinna of fern
pinnat:  feathered, pinnate; ex. pinnate
pino:  drink; ex. pinocytosis
pisc:  fish; ex. piscivore
pistill:  pestle; ex. pistil
plagi:  oblique, sideways; ex. plagiotropic, Plagiomnium
Plagiomnium:  sideways Mnium
plagiopodia:  sideways foot
Plagiothecium:  sideways capsule
plan:  flat
plankt:  wandering; ex. plankton
plasm:  something molded or modeled; ex. plasma cell, protoplasm,
plasmolysis, plasmid, plasmodium, plasmogamy, plasmolyze
plast:  formed, molded; ex. chloroplast, plastid
plastr:  breastplate; ex. plastron
plat:  broad, flat; ex. platelet, Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
Platydictya:  flat net
Platygyrium:  flat, turning in a circle
platyphyllum:  flat leafed
plec:  twisted; ex. Plecoptera, plectostele
pletho:  full, fullness, in excess
pleur:  side, rib; ex Pleuridium
pleust:  sailor, sailing; ex. pleuston
plic:  fold, braid; ex. plicate
plum:  feather; ex. plumule, Hylocomium plumae-formae
plumosum:  like a feather; ex. Brachythecium plumosum
plumulosus:  like a feather
plur:  more, several; ex. pluripapillose
pne:  breathe, breath
pneumo:  lungs; ex. pneumonia
pod:  foot; ex. pseudopodium, Lycopodium
pogo:  beard; ex. Calopogon, Pogonatum
poikil:  varied, variegated; ex. poikilothermic, poikilohydric
polar:  of the pole; ex. polar nuclei
poll:  fine flour; ex. pollen, pollination
pollut:  defiled; ex, pollution
poly:  many, much; ex. polypeptide, Polypodiophyta, Polysiphonia,
Polytrichum
polycarpa:  many "fruits" or capsules
polyclada:  many stems
polygamum:  many marriages
polyp:  many-footed
polysetum:  many setae (and capsules, from one branch tip); ex. Dicranum
polysetum
Polytrichum:  having many hairs (on calyptra)
pomiformis:  apple form; ex. Bartramia pomiformis
pori:  pore, small opening; ex. oopore
porosum:  full of pores
port:  carry
post:  behind, after
pot:  drink; ex. potable
potam:  river
poten:  powerful
prae:  before
pragma:  object, thing, fact, matter
pratense:  of the field
prav:  deformed
pre:  before
preda:  prey, booty; ex. predation, predator
prim:  first; ex. primitive
pro:  before, in front of, forward, for; ex. prophase, provirus,
prothallus
procera:  tall
process:  project from
proligera:  prolific (referring to gemmae); ex. Pohlia proligera
propaga:  generate
prorepens:  forward on the ground
prosthe:  addition, appendage
prot:  first; ex. protandrous
protensum:  elongate
protero:  fore, former
protist:  very first; ex. Protista
proto:  first; ex. protogynandrous, protonema, protophloem, protoplast,
protostele, protoxylem
proxim:  nearest; ex. proximal convoluted tubule
pseud:  false; ex. pseudomale, pseudopodium, pseudo-opposite
Pseudobryum:  false Bryum
Pseudoleskea:  false Leskea
Pseudoleskeella:  false Leskeella
pseudopunctatum:  false spotted
pseudostramineum:  false stramineum
pseudotriquetrum:  false triangular
psil:  bare, naked; ex. Psilotophyta
pter:  wing, feather, fin; ex. Diptera (2 wings), Trichoptera,
Pteridophyta
Pterigynandrum:  female-male fern
ptil:  feather, wing
puber:  adult, downy
puell:  girl
puer:  boy
pulch:  beautiful; ex. Calopogon pulchella, Ptilidium pulcherrimum
pulchellum:  beautiful
pulmo:  lung
pulv:  powder, dust
pulvinata:  powdery
pumilum:  dwarf
punctat:  marked with pricks
pung:  penetrating; ex. pungent
purpureus:  purple
pusill:  very small
pusilla:  very small
putr:  rotten; ex. putrid
pygmaeum:  dwarfed, compared to its relatives
pyl:  gate, orifice; ex. micropyle
pyren:  fruit stone; ex. pyrenoid
pyrenaicum:  from the Pyrenees; ex. Hylocomium pyrenaicum
pyriforme:  pear-shaped; ex. Leptobryum pyriforme
pyro:  fire; ex. pyrogen, Pyrrophyta, Fontinalis antipyretica
quadr:  four; ex. quadriflagellate
quant:  how much; ex. quantify
quasi:  nearly, almost, as though
quin:  five; ex. Parthenocissus quinquefolia
quinqu:  five; ex. Parthenocissus quinquefolia
quinquefarium:  five-ranked (having branches in 5 distinct rows)
racem:  cluster
rachi:  spine, backbone; ex. rachis
radi:  spoke, ray, radius; ex. radial
radian:  shining; ex. radiation
radicale:  root
radicans:  having lots of "roots" or rhizoids
radicl:  root; ex. radicle
radul:  scraper
raph:  seam, suture
recept:  receiver; ex. receptacle
recognitum:  recognized (refers to recognition by Hedwig that Hypnum
delicatulum was different from the Hypnum he then named recognitum; both
are now in Thuidium)
rect:  straight, rectum; ex. Potentilla recta
recumben:  lying down
recurvans:  recurved, i.e., having leaf edge rolled under or to back; ex.
Brotherella recurvans
recurvata:  recurved, i.e., having leaf edge rolled under or to back
recurvirostrum:  curved beak (on operculum)
recurvum:  curved under or back; ex. Sphagnum recurvum
reflexa:  bent back on itself
reg:  king, royal; ex. Osmunda regalis
regina:  queen
relict:  left behind
ren:  kidney; ex. renal, reniform
repand:  turned up, bent backward
repen:  creeping; ex. Mitchella repens
repens:  low to the ground, as when you kneel to repent
replic:  fold back; ex. replicate
rept:  creep, crawl; ex. reptile
respir:  breathe; ex. respiration
resupin:  bent back
resuscita:  revive
reticul:  network; ex. reticulate, reticulum
retin:  net; ex. retina
retro:  back, behind, backward; ex. retrovirus
revolut:  rolled back
revolvens:  rolled back
rex:  king
rhabd:  rod, ex. Rhabdoweisia
rhac:  rags, ex. Rhacophyllum
rhag:  break, broken
rhaptocarpa:  seamed (therefore ribbed) capsule
rheg:  break
rheo:  flow; ex. rheophyte
rhin:  nose; ex. Rhinoceros
rhiz:  root; ex. rhizome, mycorrhizae, rhizoid
rhod:  rose, rose-colored; ex. rhodopsin, Rhodophyta, Rhodobryum
Rhodobryum:  red Bryum
rhonch:  snore
rhynch:  beak, snout; ex. Eurhynchium
Rhynchostegium:  beaked roof
rhyti:  wrinkle; ex. Rhytidium, Rhytidiadelphus
rigida:  rigid
rigidulus:  somewhat rigid
rip:  bank of stream; ex. Eurhynchium riparioides
riparioides:  riparian, of the river; ex. Platyhypnidium (Eurhynchium)
riparioides
riparium:  stream bank
riv:  brook, furrow
rivulare:  of the river; ex. Brachythecium rivulare
robusta:  strong
roseum:  having a rosette or flower form; ex. Rhodobryum roseum
rostr:  beak, snout
rostratus:  beaked; ex. Anomodon rostratus
rota:  wheel, revolve; ex. rotate corolla
rotae:  wheel, revolve
rotund:  round, Salvinia rotundifolia, Drosera rotundifolia
rubr:  red; ex. Quercus rubra
rubrum:  red; ex. Splachnum rubrum
rufescens:  reddish
rugicum:  wrinkled
rugosum:  rugose, or roughened, as by undulations on leaf
rumina:  chew cud; ex. rumen
rupestris:  of the rock; ex. Andreaea rupestris
ruralis:  of the country
rutabulum:  poker (referring to long seta); ex. Brachythecium rutabulum
sabuletorum:  of the sand
sacchar:  sugar; ex. disaccharide
sagitt:  arrow; ex. Sagittaria, sagittate
salebr:  rough, uneven; ex. Brachythecium salebrosum
salici:  willow; ex. Salix, salicylic acid
salien:  leaping
saliv:  spittle; ex. saliva
salta:  leap; ex. saltation
salv:  save, preserve
sangui:  blood; ex. Sanguinaria
sanit:  health, soundness
sapien:  wise, knowing
sapr:  rotten, putrid; ex. saprophyte
sarc:  flesh
sarment:  twigs, branches; ex. Calliergon sarmentosum
saur:  lizard; ex. dinosaur
sax:  rock; ex. Saxifraga, saxicolous
saxatil:  living among rocks
scabr:  rough; ex. scabrous
scal:  ladder; ex. scalariform conjugation
scapan:  spade; ex. Scapania
scari:  little worm; ex. Ascaris
schism:  splitting, division; ex. Odontoschisma
schist:  split, divided; ex. Schistidium
schisti:  split
schiz:  split cleave; schizophrenia, schizocarp
sciatic:  of the hip
scien:  knowledge; ex. science
scitum:  fine
scler:  hard; ex. sclerenchyma, sclera, sclerotium
scoparium:  broom; ex. Dicranum scoparium
Scorpidium:  like a scorpion (coiled)
scorpioides:  like a scorpion (coiled)
scrophul:  tumor, swelling; ex. Scrophularia
scrot:  pouch
scut:  shield
scutell:  little shield
seclu:  shut off, hidden
secret:  set apart; ex. secretion
secund:  next, second
sed:  sit, sitting; ex. sedentary
sedat:  soothed, calm; ex. sedation
seductrix:  lead aside; ex. Entodon seductrix
segm:  piece cut off; ex. segment
seism:  shaking, earthquake
selen:  moon
Sematophyllum:  signal leaf
semen:  seed, sperm
semi:  half
semper:  always; ex. sempervirens
senesc:  grow old; ex. senescence
senil:  of old people
septentrion:  northern
septum:  fence
sequa:  following; ex. sequential hermaphroditism
serotin:  late; ex. serotinous
serp:  creep
serpens:  creeping
serratum:  having small teeth
serum:  watery part of fluids
set:  bristle; ex. seta
sibirica:  of Siberia
sicc:  dry; ex. desiccation, exsiccata
silv:  woods, trees; ex. silvatica
sin:  damage; ex. eosinophil
sinist:  left hand, awkward, evil
sino:  Chinese
sinu:  hollow; ex. sinus
siphlo:  crippled
sipho:  tube pipe; ex. siphonostele
sol:  sun
solen:  pipe, channel; ex. Solenostemum
soli:  alone
solo:  alone
solu:  dissolve; ex. solute, solution
soma:  body; ex. chromosome, somatic cell
somn:  sleep
soph:  wise, skillful
sordidum:  filthy; ex. Orthotrichum sordidum
soro:  heap; ex. sorus, sorophore
soror:  sister
sorus:  heap; ex. sorus
spath:  broad sword; ex. spathe
spati:  space
spatul:  little blade; ex. spatulate
speci:  kind, special; ex. species
specios:  beautiful, showy
speciosum:  beautiful, showy; ex. Orthotrichum speciosum
speo:  cave
sphaer:  ball, sphere; ex. spherule, atmosphere, Sphaerocarpus,
Gomphosphaeria
sphaericum:  spherical (referring to capsule)
sphagni:  among Sphagnum
sphagnifolia:  having leaves like Sphagnum
sphen:  wedge
sphyg:  pulse; ex. sphygmomanometer
spinulosum:  small spines or teeth (as on leaf margins)
spire:  breathe; ex. respiration, spiracle, transpiration
spiro:  spiral, coil; ex. Spirogyra
splachnoides:  like Splachnum
Splachnum:  Greek word for moss (splachnon)
splendens:  splendid, beautiful; ex. Hylocomium splendens
spong:  sponge; ex. spongy mesophyll
spor:  seed; ex. spore, sporangium, sporogenesis, sporophyll, sporophyte,
sporocarp, sporangiophore, sporocyte
spurium:  false; ex. Dicranum spurium
squam:  scale; ex. Fontinalis squamosa
squarros:  scaly, rough; ex. Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus
squarrosa:  having leaves that bend nearly at right angles away from the
stem
stagn:  motionless, pool
stalsis:  constriction, compression; ex. peristalsis
stam:  anything standing upright; ex. stamen
stape:  stirrup
stat:  standing, placed; ex. statolith
staur:  cross
steg:  cover, roof; ex. Rhynchostegium
stella:  star
stellare:  like a star; ex. Mnium stellare
stellatum:  star
sten:  narrow
stentor:  trumpet
sterigma:  support
sterile:  barren
stern:  breast; ex. sternum
steth:  breast, chest; ex. stethoscope
stict:  punctured, dappled
stigm:  spot, brand, pricking; ex. stigma
stipes:  stalk, stem
stipi:  stalk, stem
stolo:  twig, shoot; ex. stolon
stom:  mouth; ex. stoma, peristome, Conostomum
stram:  straw; ex. stramineum
stramineum:  straw
strangulatum:  choked; ex. Orthotrichum strangulatum
strept:  bent, twisted; ex. Streptocarpus
streptocarpa:  twisted capsule
stria:  furrow, streak; ex. striated, Corallorhiza striata
striatella:  small furrowed
strob:  twist, turn, whirl; ex. Pinus strobus
strobil:  anything that whirls, top, pine cone; ex. strobilus
stroma:  anything spread out
struct:  build
strum:  tumor; ex. strumose
strumiferum:  strumose (having "Adam's apple at base of capsule)
struthio:  ostrich; ex. Matteuccia struthiopteris
stygium:  hated
sub:  under, below; ex. subsidiary cell, substomatal chamber
subbasilaris:  refers to lateral position of sporophytes; ex. Fissidens
subbasilaris
subfulvum:  somewhat reddish-yellow or tawny; ex. Sphagnum subfulvum
subnitens:  somewhat shining; ex. Sphagnum subnitens
subsecunda:  somewhat secund or curved to one side; ex. Sphagnum
subsecundum
subtile:  fine, thin, closely woven
subul:  awl
subulata:  awned
succ:  juice, sap; ex. succulent
sucr:  sugar
sulc:  furrow, groove, trench
super:  above, over; ex. superior ovary
supin:  lying on back
supra:  above, over, beyond
sylv:  woods, forest
sym:  with, together; ex. symplastic, sympetalous
symbio:  living together; ex. symbiosis
symmetricus:  symmetrical
syn:  with, together; ex. synangium
synapsis:  falling together, union
synerg:  cooperate, work together; ex. synergid
sys:  with, together; ex. systolic
tang:  touch; ex. tangential
taraxi:  confusion, trouble; ex. Taraxacum
tard: slow; ex. Tardigrade
tars:  flat surface, ankle
taut:  same; ex. tautonym
tax:  arrange, arrangement; ex. taxonomy, taxis, phyllotaxy
taxifolius:  having leaf arrangement like Taxus; ex. Fissidens taxifolius
Taxiphyllum:  having leaf arrangement like Taxus
taxirameum:  Taxus branched; ex. taxiphyllum tairameum
tegm:  cover; ex. integument
telo:  end, complete; ex. telophase, telome
tenax:  holding fast, tough; ex. Hygroamblystegium tenax
tenellum:  delicate, soft, tender
tenerum:  tender, soft
tenta:  handle, touch, feel; ex. tentacle
tenu:  thin, slender; ex. attenuate
tenuirostre:  thin-beaked
tenuis:  thin
tere:  round, smooth; ex. terete
teres:  smooth, round
termin:  end; ex. terminal
tern:  three; ex. ternate
terr:  earth, land; ex. terrarium
terrestr:  on land; ex. terrestrial
terti:  third; ex. tertiary
tetra:  four; ex. tetrad, tetrarch, tetraspore, tetrasporophyte, Tetraphis
Tetradontium:  having 4 teeth
Tetraphis:  having 4 teeth
Tetraplodon:  4-fold tooth (in developing peristome)
thalam:  chamber, inner room; ex. hypothalamus
Thamnobryum:  shrub moss
thei:  sulfur
thely:  female; ex. Thelypteris
therap:  serve, treatment; ex. therapeutic
therm:  heat; ex. thermophilic, endotherm, ectotherm
thigm:  touch; ex. thigmotropism, thigmonasty
thio:  sulfur
thora:  breastplate; ex. thorax
thym:  mind, spirit, courage; ex. thymus gland
thyr:  shield; ex. thyroxin, Arenaria thyrsifolia
tinct:  dyed, tinged; ex. tincture
tmema:  section, portion
tmesi:  separation, division; ex. Tmesipteris
toment:  dense hair; ex. Tomenthypnum
Tomenthypnum:  very tomentose (woolly hairy) Hypnum
ton:  tension, something stretched; tonoplast
tophaceus:  porous stone; ex. Didymodon tophaceus
torp:  numbness; ex. torpor
torquata:  collared
torquescens:  collared
Tortella:  twisted
tortifolium:  twisted leaves
tortul:  hair tuft; ex. Tortula
tortuosa:  contorted or twisted; ex. Tortella tortuosa
tot:  all; totipotent
trache:  windpipe; ex. tracheid
tract:  drawn; ex. extract
trans:  across; ex. transfer protein, transpiration, transport epithelium,
transfusion tissue
Trematodon:  perforated tooth (of peristome)
tri:  three
trich:  hair; ex. Trichoptera, Polytrichum, trichome, trichoblast,
trichogyne
Trichodon:  hair-tooth
trichomanoides:  like the fern Trichomanes
trichomitria:  hair cap
trichophyllus:  hair leaf
trichopodium:  hair foot
trifarium:  3-ranked
tripan:  bore through; ex. Tripanosoma
triquetr:  triangular; ex. Rhytidiadelphus triquetris
triquetra:  triangular
triste:  sad (refers to its dull appearance)
trop:  turn, change; ex. tropism
troph:  nourish food; ex. autotrophic
trunc:  cut off; truncate
truncata:  truncate
tumid:  swollen
tundrae:  of the tundra
turfacea:  growing in bogs (turf)
turg:  swollen; ex. turgid, turgor pressure
turgescens:   swollen
turgidum:  swollen; ex. Brachythecium turgidum
tympan:  drum; ex. tympanum
uliginosum:  moisture; ex. Bryum uliginosum
ulna:  elbow
ultim:  last
ultr:  beyond
umbell:  umbrella; ex. umbel
umbo:  projecting knob
umbratum:  shady; ex. Hylocomium umbratum
umbros:  shady
un:  not
uncatus:  hooked
uncinatus:  hooked
undul:  wavy
undulatum:  wavy; ex. Atrichum undulatum
unguiculata:  nail or claw; ex. Barbula unguiculata
uni:  one; ex. unicellular
unicolor:  one color; ex. Grimmia unicolor
urce:  pitcher
ure:  tail, urine
ureo:  urine; ex. urea, ureter
urnigerum:  urn bearing
urs:  bear
utri:  leather bag; ex. Utricularia
vac:  empty
vagin:  sheath
vapor:  gas; ex. evaporation cooling
variegat:  marked variously
varium:  varying; ex. Amblystegium varium
vascul:  little vessel; ex. vascular tissue
vaso:  vessel, duct; ex. vasodilation
vect:  carried; ex. convection, pollination vector
velutin:  velvety; ex. velutina
velutinum:  velvety; ex. Brachythecium velutinum
ven:  vein; ex. venule, venation
ventr:  underside; ex. ventral, ventricle, ventral canal
verd:  green
veri:  true
verm:  worm
vern:  spring; ex. vernal, vernation
vernicosus:  spring
verticill:  whorl
verticillatum:  whorled
vesic:  bladder
vesper:  evening
vestig:  trace; ex. vestigial
vir:  man
vire:  green; ex. Dicranum viride
virens:  green
virescens:  becoming green
virginianum:  of Virginia
viride:  green
viridissimus:  very green
viridulus:  green
virul:  poisonous; ex. virulent
vit:  life; ex. vitamin
viticulosus:  like a little vine, spriggy (like Vitis:  grape)
vitr:  glass; ex. in vitro, vitreous humor
viva:  alive; ex. in vivo
volucr:  winged; ex. involucre
volv:  roll, turn; ex. Volvox
vor:  eat; ex. carnivore, omnivore, insectivorous
vulgaris:  common
xanth:  yellow; ex. Xanthophyta, xanthophyll
xeno:  stranger; ex. xenobiotic
xer:  dry; ex. xerophyte, xeric
xiph:  sword; ex. Bryoxiphium
xyl:  wood; ex. xylem
zo:  animal; ex. zoology, zoospore, zoosporangium
zon:  belt, zone, girdle
zygo:  yoke; ex. zygote, zygomorphic, zygospore, Zygodon
Zygodon:  yoke tooth
zym:  ferment; ex. enzyme, lysozyme

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